Global water stress

Globally, water stress reached a level of 18.6 per cent in 2019. Although it remained at a safe level (below 25 per cent), this average masks substantial regional variations. Northern Africa and Western Asia had a critical level of water stress that year, at 84.1 per cent, an increase of 13 per cent since 2015. More than 733 million people - 10 per cent of the global population - live in countries with high and critical levels of water stress (above 75 per cent).

UN SDGs Goal 6

What is water reuse

Water reuse is the practice of reclaiming water from various sources, treating it, and reusing it for beneficial purposes. It can provide alternative supplies for potable and non-potable uses to enhance water security, sustainability, and resilience.
In the case of municipal wastewater reuse, pathogens and chemical contaminants are removed. To achieve their removal, the treatment process is designed based on the concept of multi-barrier and redundant design.

Water Reclamation Process

Water reclamation process for secondary effluent is typically consists of ultrafiltration,
reverse osmosis, and advanced oxidation process.
Toray provides two key unit process technologies, UF and RO.

  • UF membrane is applied to remove the suspended solids and pathogens.
  • RO membrane is applied to remove dissolved constituents and trace organics and chemicals.


  • Pore Size equivalent to 1/5,000 of a hair
  • Producing High Quality Pretreated Feedwater to RO
  • Efficient Operation and Long Life of RO


  • Suspended Solids
  • Colloidal Particles
  • Bacteria
  • Viruses
Hollow Fiber Membrane
UF Filtrate Backwash IN WWT Secondary Effluent Backwash OUT


  • Removing Impurities by Semi-Permeable Membrane
  • Producing High Quality Reclaimed Water
  • Best available Technology for removing a great variety of dissolved contaminants


  • Agricultural & Organic Material
  • Multivalent ions
  • Monovalent ions
UF Filtrate UF Filtrate RO Concentrate RO Permeate RO Concentrate


  • A combination of chemical treatment
    (ozone, hydrogen peroxide and/or UV light
    by oxidation through reaction with hydroxyl radicals
  • Inactivation of viruses
  • Oxidization of non-biodegradable materials such as aromatics, pesticides and volatile organics
RO Permeate Reclaimed Water to Water Treatment Plant


Functional requirements for membrane filtration technology address the rejection of constituents in the feed water to produce highly-treated wastewater that meets the reclaimed water quality requirements.
Toray Membranes are designed to achieve the target water quality and fully integrity tested before shipping.